Friday 23 December 2016

Amazon Alexa controlling Raspberry Pi GPIOZero Xmas lights

I've been looking for a home IoT project to setup with Amazon Alexa and my Raspberry Pi powered Christmas Tree seemed like an obvious choice.

Here's how it works:

There are 5 sets of cheapo xmas LEDs connected directly to GPIO pins on the Pi. I then use Python and GPIOZero to turn them on and off, do a bit of PWM and run some fancy sequences.  I've then integrated this code into a simple Python Flask app that essentially provides a web-interface to activate the LEDs.

The Pi is also running this awesome Home Automation Bridge code  from BWS Systems. This emulates the Philips Hue light system and can be easily configured to send web requests to other devices, in this case my Flask app.

Finally, Alexa discovers the HAB and merrily passes requests to it based on your voice commands.

All this runs fine on an old 512MB Raspberry Pi model B.


1) Get and SD card with the latest version of Raspbian. Boot it and connect to your wifi

2) Find the if address of your Pi

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ ifconfig wlan0
wlan0     Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:c1:41:39:0c:3e  
          inet addr:  Bcast:  Mask:
          inet6 addr: fe80::1185:ec1e:49f9:d936/64 Scope:Link
          RX packets:2270 errors:0 dropped:2 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:646 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:327701 (320.0 KiB)  TX bytes:94619 (92.4 KiB)

3) Download the jar file for the HAB:


4) Run this jar file:

sudo java -jar -Dconfig.file=/home/pi/habridge/data/habridge.config /home/pi/habridge/ha-bridge-3.5.1.jar

5) Point a browser at the IP of your Pi (from step 2). You should be able to connect to the HAB - click on the Bridge Control tab and you should see a screen like this:

 6) Clone my github with the  Flask app. There are two versions of the code available: one is setup to use 5 sets of LEDs while the other is a cut down version with just a single LED string configured, connected to GPIO 14 and ground. I'm assuming you've just got one LED (or a string of LEDs) from now on. 

7)  Run the app:

pi@raspberrypi:~/gp0web $ python 
 * Running on
 * Restarting with reloader

8) Now we can configure our HAB. Click on the 'Manual Add' tab and fill-in the fields as shown below. The 'Unique ID' field will self-populate once you save your settings so don't worry about that.

Don't forget to change the IP address based on your setup.

9) Now save the settings and then test them. Click on the Bridge Devices tab and try to turn your LEDs on/off using the Test buttons.

If you encounter problems, check you've typed the URLs correctly and see if the Flak app is showing any errors.

10) If all is working, the final configuration  step is to ask Alexa to 'discover devices'. It should respond that it found one (unless you already have other devices on your network).

11) Now you should be able to ask Alexa to "turn on tree" (or whatever name you gave to your device in step 8). 

Friday 16 December 2016

Getting started with Android Things and Pimoroni Rainbow HAT

I was really excited to try out Android Things on the Raspberry Pi, especaiily with the sweet looking Pimoroni RainbowHAT, but found getting everything up and running initially a bit fiddly. Here are my notes on how it all works. I used a Mac as my developer box but I assume things will be fairly similar if you're using Windows. 

1. First of all, download the Android Studio and install it. On a mac this just means dragging the app into the Applications folder.  
2. Now run it. You'll be asked if you want to import anything – you probably don't. The only other optional configuration is to select a colour theme. I chose Dracula! 

3. Now we'll be able to connect to our Pi. Boot it from the Android SD card and wait for the Android Things splash screen to appear. It will show you the IP address being used by the Pi – make sure you connect it to your network via an Ethernet cable. Now open up a Terminal (or a CMD prompt if you're on a Windows box I guess) and cd to the Android SDK directory just installed. On a Mac that'll be /Users/<your user>/Library/Android/sdk/platform-tools.

4. Run the adb command to connect to your Pi, using the IP address shown on the splash screen.

5.Now head back to Android Studio. We'll check out one of the sample apps from the GitHub repo. Let's start with the simple Button app, which will illuminate one of the HAT's touch pad LEDs when the pad is pressed.

Click on 'Check out project from version Control' from the Android Studio welcome window and select 'Git'. Copy the URL of the button repo into the appropriate box. Create a folder on your developer machine where you'd like to store your AndroidThings projects and browse to that using the button next to the 'Parent Directory' text box. The sub-directory name should be filled in for you.

6. Then click the 'Clone' button, and once it has downloaded, click 'yes' on the next dialog box. 

7. Then Click 'OK' on the next one.

8. Android Studio will start to build your code, but because you haven't yet downloaded the correct SDK, you'll get an error. Just click 'OK' – we'll fix that now.

9. Back at the main Studio welcome screen (step 2), click on 'Open an existing Android Studio Project' and browse to the sample-Button folder which has just been created under the folder created in step 4. Click OK.

10. You'll see a window like this. If you look closely at the bottom of the window, you'll see some status messages.

After a few seconds you'll see a 'Failed to sync' error and a blue 'Install missing platforms' link. Click on the link.

Accept the license agreement (after reading it thoroughly, of course) and click next.

13. Then you'll get another sync error with a link to install missing Platform Tools. Click the link.

14. You might see a message about updating plugins. Click 'update'.

15. That should be everything installed. Now we can run the app. Click on 'Run App' or the green triangle. You'll be aked to select a deployment target. You should see an Unknown Iot_rpi3 device listed (if not, try and reconnect as per step 3). Click OK.
16. The screen on the Pi should change to be almost entirely white with a black band at the top with the word 'Button' Try pressing the A touchpad on the Pi and the LED on that pad should illuminate. Notice that touching either of the other 2 buttons doesn't do anything (yet).

17. Success ! Your first Android things App. Now let's hack it a bit. We'll keep it simple: let's enable touchpad B instead, but have it turn on the LED on button C. Open the Project view in Android Studio and select the BoardDefaults file from the tree in the left pane.

18. Double click on the file and have a look at the contents. You'll see two functions which we'll need to modify: getGPIOforLED and getGPIOforButton.

19. By consulting the excellent entry for Rainbow HAT we can see that pin 26 is the LED for pad C and pin 20 is used for pad B itself.

20. Modify getGPIOforLED so that it returns BCM26 for Pi boards and similarly modify getGPIOforButton so that it returns BCM20.

21. Now re-run the app and deploy the new version to your Pi (click the green play button). You should see the Pi reset. Test the HAT to check that your changes have had the desired effect.  

22. Now why not try the awesome weather station app which really lights up the Rainbow HAT.  Follow steps 4-17 above but choose the weather station Github repo instead.  Once you've deployed it, reboot the Pi. When it restarts you should be given the option as to which app you want to run.  Connect a mouse to the Pi and choose the Weatherstation. 

23. That's it! Now get stuck into some Java coding and explore some of the other sample code available. 


Friday 18 November 2016

Pimoroni Flotilla Offline - instructions

After last week's Wimbledon Raspberry Jam, a few people asked me for instructions for getting Pimoroni Flotilla working in a completely offline environment. Obviously you need an Internet connection to do all the installing, but following these instructions should enable you to use Flotilla and all the great Cookbook stuff when you don't have Net access.

Here is a brief description of the steps I performed. This will almost certainly not work exactly the same way with future releases of the software and may not even be necessary!

1. Start with a fresh install of Raspbian and PIXEL. Do the usual update and upgrade:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade -y

2. Install the Flotilla software as normal.
curl -sS | bash
Start it up and update the Flotilla Dock firmware if required.

3. Clone the flotilla-cookbook and flotilla-rockpool repositories
git clone
git clone
4. Change into the flotilla-rockpool directory and switch to the Edge branch.
cd floilla-rockpool
git checkout edge
git fetch
5. Now for the tedious bit. All the hyperlinks in the examples in the Cookbook are pointing at online resources. We need to change them so that they point at our local cloned copy of Rockpool. Basically you need to go through each of the Cookbook recipe directories (in /home/pi/flotilla-cookbook) and edit the index.html file:  change wherever it says '' to 'file:///home/pi/flotilla-rockpool/' (note the three /s after file). You could use a bash script to trawl through the whole directory or just open each one manually (Geany on the Pi is a good editor) and do a find/replace.

6. Finally, to make sure all the examples (especially Synth) work correctly with local files, you need to launch Chromium with some extra flags. I created a separate Desktop shortcut to make this simple. Create a file called flotilla-offline.desktop in /home/pi/Desktop

[Desktop Entry]
Exec= chromium-browser --allow-file-access-from-files
Name=Flotilla Offline
Comment=Flotilla Offline

7. An icon should appear on the Desktop. Run it! I recommend adding Chromium bookmarks to each of the modified index.html files in each of the Cookbook recipe subdirectories. I also added a bookmark for the local version of Rockpool (file:///home/pi/flotilla-rockpool/index.html)

Thursday 23 June 2016

Pi Zero CCTV with ZeroView

One of the first things I used a raspberry Pi for was to build a simple CCTV system. In fact that original model B is still up and running and today.  It is a nice compact, self contained system.

However the addition of a camera capability to the Pi Zero opened up the possibilities for even smaller photography ideas.

Those rambunctious pirates at Pimoroni were quick off the mark with their dinky Little Bro kit. This is a smart CCTV sign that has a  hole for the camera and comes with a mounting bracket for the Pi Zero which also allows you to fix the whole thing to a wall.    When I wanted to make a timelapse of some garden work that was happening I simply used some string to hang the Little Bro from the window handle. This worked fine although it was a bit wobbly (especially when the window as opened) and when I had to adjust something I didn't manage to put it back up without altering the field of view slightly (you can see that the picture jumps slightly at about 00:10). It was also difficult to get the camera as close to the glass to keep reflections to a minimum.

Then The PiHut launched the excellent ZeroView, designed for exactly this sort of thing. It uses two sucker pads to stick to a window thus keep the camera as close to the glass as possible. Because the frame can be removed from the suckers while leaving them attached to the window, it also allows for easy adjustment and replacement without altering the field of view.

Initial tests confirmed that this was genius!

 Remixing my original CCTV build (which uses Motion to detect movement and then uploads the resulting movie to Dropbox) was easy. On the first night of testing I managed to catch this wily fox sneaking through my garden at dawn.

However there were a couple of issues about making this a permanent installation that I wanted to address:

1) My experience of headless Pis and wifi is that sometimes the computer drops off the network. Although the power management for dongles seems to be much improved now, I wanted an easy way of seeing that the Zero was still connected.
2) Suckers are effective but not always reliable, especially in a window which might experience big changes in temperature.

So as a combined solution to both of these, I used a ProtoZero board, an accelerometer and an RGB LED.

Some simple python checks the accelerometer and looks for abrupt changes in the values reported, to detect if the Pi falls off the window. In this event it uploads a picture of Humpty Dumpty to DropBox. The same code also periodically checks that it is still connected to the Internet (by pinging Google) and changes the colour of the RGB LED from green to red.  There are a few other visual cues too: the LED flashes blue when the baseline accelerometer readings are being measured at start-up and also flashes green when a ping test is underway. This is run at startup via /etc/rc.local.

from gpiozero import RGBLED
from adxl345 import ADXL345
import time, numpy
from datetime import datetime
import dropbox
import urllib3.contrib.pyopenssl
import os,sys,logging

logfile = "/home/pi/cctv-"+str("%Y%m%d-%H%M"))+".csv"
logging.basicConfig(filename=logfile, level=logging.DEBUG,
    format='%(asctime)s %(message)s',
    datefmt='%Y-%m-%d, %H:%M:%S,')

led = RGBLED(26,13,6)
adxl345 = ADXL345()
client = dropbox.client.DropboxClient('<ENTER YOUR DROPBOX KEY HERE>')
#print('linked account: ', client.account_info())'linked account: ', client.account_info())
axes = adxl345.getAxes(True)
#print("ADXL345 on address 0x%x:" % (adxl345.address))"ADXL345 on address 0x%x:" % (adxl345.address))
t = 0
x_av = 0
y_av = 0
x_values = []
y_values = []
led.blink(on_time=0.1,off_time=0.1,on_color=(0,0,1), n=50,background=True)
while t < 100:
    axes = adxl345.getAxes(True)
    x = axes['x']
    y = axes['y']
#    print(x)
x_av = numpy.mean(x_values) 
y_av = numpy.mean(y_values) 
x_range = numpy.max(x_values) - numpy.min(x_values)
y_range = numpy.max(y_values) - numpy.min(y_values)'Set mean x: ' + str(x_av))'Set range x: ' + str(x_range))'Set mean y: ' + str(y_av))'Set range y: ' + str(y_range))
led.color = (0,0.2,0)
counter = 0
jiggle = 5
while True:
    axes = adxl345.getAxes(True)
    x = axes['x']
    y = axes['y']
    if ((x > (x_av + (jiggle*x_range))) or (x < (x_av - (jiggle*x_range)))) and  ((y > (y_av + (jiggle*y_range))) or (y < (y_av - (jiggle*y_range)))):
        led.color = (1,0,0)
        f = open(eggfile, 'rb')
        response = client.put_file(eggfile,f)
    counter +=1
    if counter > 6000:
        #print('Checking network comms...')'Checking network comms...')
        counter = 0
        response = os.system("ping -c 3")
        if response == 0:
  'I pinged Google successfully')
            led.blink(on_time=0.1, off_time=0.1, on_color=(0,0.5,0), n=3, background=False)
            led.color = (0,0.2,0)
  'Comms Down :-(')
            led.blink(on_time=0.1, off_time=0.1, on_color=(1,0,0), background=True)


1) I used numpy to calculate the means and ranges which is really lazy - especially as numpy takes ages to compile on a Pi Zero.

2) I started from a fresh instal of jessie-lite. In addition to the Python libraries at the top of the code, you'll also  need to install the following Raspbian packages:


3) You''l also need to enable the camera and the i2C interface through raspi-config

Thursday 9 June 2016

Finally... A High Altitude Balloon flight with Raspberry Pi

It had been a long journey from last year's Skycademy to get to this launch. Being situated just a few miles from Heathrow was always going to mean that launching from school would be tricky unless it involved everybody getting up a silly-o'clock (before flights started) and chasing through rush hour.

So finding a launch site close enough to be practical but far enough outside the LondonControl Zone (which defines the busy airspace around London) to gain CAA approval took a several months and a few applications and phone calls.

But now I had one I thought was suitable;. Even then, our launch permission comes with wind restrictions: the balloon must drift South or South West (i.e. away from London). This isn't as bad as it sounds because, realistically, you wouldn't want to chase a balloon heading in any other direction.

Thursday's flight was to be the first, long-awaited test from this site. Wind conditions over Easter were rubbish and we'd already aborted a planned launch on Tuesday because of bad weather (heavy ran and wind). Although conditions had improved and it was a dry day, it remained overcast and gusty (30mph) during the morning. Although things looked like improving even further by the weekend, Nick wouldn't be able to make it then so I decided to press ahead with the launch. Despite the blowy ground winds, the balloon wasn't due to travel too far and the predicted landing site was in the South Downs National Park. Tweaking the launch parameters to avoid coming down in Petersfield meant the burst altitude was lower than we'd like at just(!) 27km, but as this was really a test of the launch site conditions, we didn't mind too much.

We arrived at the site at about 10:30 and set about finding a sheltered area. When I'd reconnoitred a couple of days earlier I'd found a ridge that seemed to provide a block for the wind. Although it was deficiently calmer there, it was still pretty gusty and an ordinary balloon staked out on the ground sheet was being constantly blown at about a 45 degree angle. However the sun was started to break up the clouds and with a long, clear area free from obstructions in the balloon's direction of travel, we decided to go ahead, over-filling if necessary.

Apart from getting slightly lost on the way back to the car to retrieve all the kit, pre-flight prep went smoothly. We'd tested everything in the days before the flight and our payload appeared on the HabHub map a minute after we booted up the Raspberry Pi A+. We were lucky enough to have two RTTY receivers (with an SDR dongle as back-up) and a LORA receiver with us (plus another one connected to a roof aerial back at my house) so we were fairly confident of our ability to track the balloon.

We attached the parachute to the payload and got ready to fill the balloon. As soon as it began to inflate it was clear that adding enough helium for the correct neck lift was going to be tricky to estimate: the balloon was being buffeted by the wind and required all four of us to hold steady. Rather than under-filling, (we think) we put in more helium than required. Certainly the balloon was pulling away quite fiercely by the end of the process.

Now to launch. The chirping from the RTTY receiver told us that the radios were still working and after a quick check to see that images were being uploaded, we were ready to go.

Picture by @duck_star

Ozzy held the balloon while Jasper had the parachute and I had the payload. The balloon was released and Oz gently played out the line until it reached the parachute. Jasper repeated the procedure until the cord started to tug on the payload and then I let go. Smooth!

Everything soared up into the sky, rapidly gaining height within a few seconds. By the time we'd picked up cameras to take photos, it was nearly out of site.

The Pi's eye view just after launching

A quick but thorough pack-up and we headed back to the car park (managing to go the long way round again). Mag-mount aerials deployed on the roof of the car and we were off. The original predictions had the balloon coming down just west of Petersfield, but the in-flight prediction was now showing a touch-down nearer to Winchester so we headed there.

Pi's eye view 15 minutes into the flight

My roof-mounted aerial back at home picked up the LORA transmissions from about 700m altitude which was impressive and we soon saw several other RTTY trackers uploading data to the website too.

By the time we arrived in Winchester, the balloon seemed to have been caught in a mini-tornado, spiralling round on itself over Liphook and never quite managing to break free and head off towards us despite steadily gaining altitude. Parking up on the roof of a multi-story car park we had lunch and decided that the balloon was never going to make it this far west before bursting: because we reckoned we'd added more helium than required, we were expecting the burst to come earlier than at the 27km we'd initially been aiming for.

As we headed back East the balloon finally escaped its looping trajectory and started heading west, gaining altitude even more rapidly. This also caused the predicted landing area to shift towards Alresford, so we drove there and found a nice pub with a beer garden to wait and see what happened. By this point the altitude was approaching 26km so we were expecting a burst at any time. But the altitude kept increasing until we we approaching 30km. Surely it must burst now?

Pi's eye view from 34km up

We continued to watch and fiddle with our receivers (Ozzy somehow managed to tune his Yupiteru into a music station), chasers of all ages becoming increasingly excited. The altitude continued to rise: 31km...32km...33km...34km… until at nearly 35K – and with much shouting and excitement from the younger team members – the HabHub icon changed from a balloon to a parachute and the altitude dropped rapidly.

Although the landing zone predictions were fluctuating, they seemed to be staying in roughly the same area so we made for Cheriton. 3/4G connectivity was quite patchy in this region so we kept loosing web access – and our ability to upload telemetry from our receivers. Getting confused (and slightly lost) we pulled up in a handy lay-by in a country lane where we had a strong 4G signal. We looked at where we were and where the payload was predicted to land and were pleased to discover that the two locations were almost the same. Surrounded by open fields this seemed like an perfect spot and we got out the binoculars and stood around in the sunshine hoping that we'd actually be able to see the payload drift in on its parachute.

It was not to be.

Suddenly at about 1km up, the predicted landing spot suddenly changed. Maybe the gusty winds just blew it off course but the new touchdown spot was a couple of miles away, right in the centre of (the excellently named) Itchen Abbas. This was less than ideal. Plenty of trees, roofs, private gardens and even a river to potentially foil our safe recovery plans.

We parked up at the village hall and checked our data. Annoyingly, despite having has 5 bars of 4G in a remote field two miles away, here among the houses and pubs of a fairly large village we had almost no signal on any network. The good news was that we were still getting telemetry from the payload and it appeared to stationary and on the ground. Typing the latitude and longitude into Google Maps and managing to find a scrap of 3G, we set off on foot.

Pi's eye view on the way down

After a few minutes of heading in the wrong directions we got ourselves oriented and started to close the gap between us and the payload. As we rounded a corner and looked at the tablet I realised that the coordinates put the landing site in the churchyard. We rushed in and there is was, sitting peacefully amongst the weathered gravestones. It had landed with the GPS facing upwards and with no signs of damage. There was very little of the balloon left, suggesting that it had been a violent burst when it eventually happened.

After some respectful celebrations (we were in a churchyard after all) and the obligatory recovery photos, we switched off the Pi and headed back to the car for the journey home.

On reflection, the flight was a great success. After the launch itself I was just happy that we'd managed to sort out all the logistics and permissions, and actually get a balloon off the ground. But having a successful chase and recovery, coupled with the amazing altitude our payload achieved, it was a really great day. All the tech worked and the only mishap was me forgetting to turn off the valve on the helium canister before removing the flexi-filler attachment thus wasting a load of gas.

We even got back home in time for tea.

Take-aways from me:

The boys really enjoyed the day. Some of the questions they asked demonstrated that (a) they hadn't really been listening when I'd explained some aspects of the flight and science as we prepared in the days prior to launch, and (b) actually being involved in physical filling of the balloon, the technical tracking and watching the live telemetry really captivated them and got them thinking and asking questions in a way that simply being told about stuff never will.

This is really a team sport. Four people seemed the minimum needed to make things run smoothly. Any less and we'd have had to make multiple trips from the car to the launch site and would have really struggled with the filling in the windy conditions. Multiple eyes on multiple screens also made tracking and navigating easier.

Having a fixed position LORA receiver with a reliable Internet connection is a good idea. It means that you have telemetry being uploaded even when you have no reception in the chase car, or are unable to upload yourself due to no local 3G/4G.

Altitude telemetry from LORA
A checklist including pictures of how to fill and tie off the balloon is really useful. Diagrams and printouts of calculations save you having to remember stuff when you're busy.

You can never have too many receivers and Internet uplinks (preferably on different networks) with you.

Picture by @duck_star
Don't rush into a launch if conditions aren't suitable. But equally, don't be put off if absolutely everything isn't ideal. It probably never will be, and predictions will never be perfectly accurate either.

Monday 30 May 2016

NatureBytes Lite - bare bones build for Raspberry Pi A+

The NatureBytes Raspberry Pi camera kit is an excellent way to capture great photos of wildlife.

The lovely injection-moulded case is perfect for keeping everything nice and dry when deployed outside. the only problem I encountered was using the supplied Raspbian image: the GUI that ships is really nice and will be well suited to people using a Pi for the first time. But on a Raspberry Pi model A+ it can be quite resource intensive and I found myself getting frustrated with the performance.

Personally I wouldn't really consider using X-windows on an A+: it just doesn't have the muscle.

So I thought I'd put together a bare-bones installation that just runs the code necessary to detect motion with the PIR and take photos. I'm not bothered about saving onto a USB drive either: I'm happy to use the SD card and then connect the Pi to a network and extract using ssh.

So here is my recipe for building a quick, low profile image that works really well on an A+. Note that this does not include any windowing system so it's command line all the way!

1) Download the latest Jessie-Lite image and write it to an SD card.

2) Boot up and install the following stuff:

sudo apt-get update
audo apt-get upgrade -y
sudo apt-get install python3 python3-dev git i2c-tools python3-pip
sudo pip3 install gpiozero picamera RPi.GPIO spidev

3) Configure the Pi: run

sudo raspi-config

and enable the Camera and I2C interface (under advanced options). You might as well expand the filesystem to fill the whole disk too.

4) If you want to use the Real Time Clock, follow these excellent instructions from the Pi Hut.

5) Add the following code to a file (e.g. This makes use of the great gpiozero library to handle the PIR and starts a new logfile every time the code is run. Each image is date/timestamped and saved into /home/pi. The Pi will keep taking photos every half a second as long as motion continues to be detected.

from gpiozero import MotionSensor
import logging
from datetime import datetime
import picamera
import time
logfile = "/home/pi/nb-"+str("%Y%m%d-%H%M"))+".csv"
logging.basicConfig(filename=logfile, level=logging.DEBUG,
    format='%(asctime)s %(message)s',
    datefmt='%Y-%m-%d, %H:%M:%S,')

pir = MotionSensor(11)

while True:

    pir.wait_for_motion()'Motion detected')
    print('Motion detected')
    while pir.motion_detected:
        print('Taking photo')
        ts  ='{:%H%M%S-%d%m%Y}'.format('Taking photo: '+ str(ts)+'.jpg')
        with picamera.PiCamera() as cam:
    print('Motion Ended')'Motion Ended')

6) Edit the /etc/rc.local to include the line

/usr/bin/python3 /home/pi/ &

before the exit 0 final line so that the code starts every time the Pi is booted.

That's it! All done.

Thursday 28 April 2016

Getting started with Adafruit Feather Huzzah and Neopixel FeatherWing

The Adafruit Feather boards are a great size and the growing ecosystems of add-ons and compatible boards is really impressive.

This blog describes a quick-start project for the ESP8266 Huzzah Feather board with a Neopixel featherwing to provide a simple status indicator.

We're going to use the ESP8266 to scan for available WiFi networks and alert us if any insecure (open, with no encryption and requiring no password) networks are found. This might be a useful sensor for the corporate environment where sysadmins want to ensure nobody is introducing un-protected access routes into their network. Red LEDs indicate that a possible rogue AP has been found, all green means everything is ok.

Hardware Setup

Depending on where you purchased you boards from, you may need to solder header pins. I added female headers to the Huzzah and males to the NeoPixel FeatherWing so that the two simply connect together like a couple of mating beetles!

The Neopixel_FeatherWing needs to have a jumper set to work with the EXP8266 Huzzah Feather. Using a sharp knife, break the preset jumper on pin 16 and then solder across the jumper on pin 15.

Software Setup

1. Ensure your Arduino Sketch editor is the latest version

2. Install the CP210x USB to UART Bridge Virtual COM Port (VCP) drivers

3. Download the Adafruit Neopixel library for Arduino. Download the zip file from the Github page and unzip it. Then rename the extracted folder to Adafruit_Neopixel and copy it to your Arduino libraries folder (on a Mac that's in /home/<user>/Documents/Arduino/libraries).

4. Add the ESP8266 board package as an additional board into the editor's preferences.

5. Now go to Tools -> Board: -> Boards Manager

Scroll down to the bottom and click the ESP8266 entry, then click the Install button
6. Once that's finished, go back to Tools-> and select the Adafruit Huzzah ESP8266 board. All the default values should be set, but make sure the Port setting corresponds to how you have connected your Feather (on a Mac it is normally /dev/cu.SLAB_USBtoUART).

7. Now for some test code. Copy this into your Ardunio Sketch editor and then click the Upload button.

#include "ESP8266WiFi.h"
#include <Adafruit_NeoPixel.h>
#ifdef __AVR__
  #include <avr/power.h>
Adafruit_NeoPixel pixels = Adafruit_NeoPixel(32, 15, NEO_GRB + NEO_KHZ800);
int OPEN = 0;
void allOn(char* col);
void setup() {
  // Set WiFi to station mode and disconnect from an AP if it was previously connected
  Serial.println("Setup done");
void allOn(char* col) {
        if (col == "red"){
    // pixels.Color takes RGB values, from 0,0,0 up to 255,255,255
            for (int p=0;p<200;p++){
                for(int i=0;i<32;i++){
                 // pixels.Color takes RGB values, from 0,0,0 up to 255,255,255
                    pixels.setPixelColor(i, pixels.Color(p,0,0)); // Moderately bright red color.
            for (int p=200;p>0;p--){
                for(int i=0;i<32;i++){
    // pixels.Color takes RGB values, from 0,0,0 up to 255,255,255
                    pixels.setPixelColor(i, pixels.Color(p,0,0)); // Moderately bright red color.
        } else {
           for (int p=0;p<200;p++){
               for(int i=0;i<32;i++){
    // pixels.Color takes RGB values, from 0,0,0 up to 255,255,255
                   pixels.setPixelColor(i, pixels.Color(0,p,0)); // Moderately bright green color.
           for (int p=200;p>0;p--){
               for(int i=0;i<32;i++){
    // pixels.Color takes RGB values, from 0,0,0 up to 255,255,255
                   pixels.setPixelColor(i, pixels.Color(0,p,0)); // Moderately bright green color.
void loop() {
  Serial.println("Starting Scan");
  // WiFi.scanNetworks will return the number of networks found
  int n = WiFi.scanNetworks();
  Serial.println("Scan complete");
  if (n == 0)
    Serial.println("No networks found");
    Serial.println(" networks found:");
    for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
      // Print SSID and RSSI for each network found
      Serial.print(i + 1);
      Serial.print(": ");
      Serial.print(" (");
      byte enc = WiFi.encryptionType(i);
      Serial.print(" Encryption: ");
      // No encryption - open network
      if (enc == 7){
  if (OPEN  > 0){
  } else {
    Serial.println("All good");
  OPEN = 0;

If you open up the Serial Monitor (Tools ->) you will be able to see the SSIDs and signal strengths of the networks that the ESP8266 finds.